how to calculate vertical analysis

In this way horizontal and vertical analysis helps to analyze the trend of a company and the income statement based on the total revenue. Based on the above analysis we see that the sales has increased resulting in increase in retained earning and dividend payout. The liquidity has also increased along with decrease in cost of capital. Although there is increase in liabilities and provision, investments in made in fixed assets and other assets have increased showing a good balance in the company statement.

How do you calculate horizontal analysis?

  1. The overall growth has been relatively higher in the year 2018 compared to that of the year 2017.
  2. Further, it is also noticed that the operating income moves in tandem with the revenue growth, which is a good sign.

The decrease in sales has a bigger impact on the net income decline, when dollars are considered. In this class, we will concentrate on liquidity, solvency, and profitability and you will learn the others in your managerial accounting class. Analysis of Financial Statements determines the strength of a business and where there is room for improvement. In general, an analysis of Financial Statements is vital for a person running a business. Because this analysis tells these business owners where they stand in their financial environment. The overall growth has been relatively higher in the year 2018 compared to that of the year 2017.


You can also use vertical analysis to identify business processes with exceptionally high costs or returns and use this to make decisions about the direction in which you choose to take your business in the future. Ultimately, the way in which you apply a vertical analysis of your accounts to your business will depend on your organisational goals and targets. For example, if the selling expenses over the past years have been in the range of 40-45% of gross sales. For the current year, they suddenly jump to say 50%; this is something that management should check. The following figure is an example of how to prepare a horizontal analysis for two years.

In this video, I explain vertical analysis of income statement by comparing the real income statements of Coca Cola and Pepsi. To isolate the reason for the net income decline, look at the change in total dollars, as well as the percentage change. The repair expense is the largest percentage change — an increase in costs. But note that the dollar amount of change is only $1,650 ($4,150 to $5,800). Without analysis, a business owner may make mistakes understanding the firm’s financial condition. For example, an Assets to Sales ratio is a measure of a firm’s productive use of Assets. Whereas a low percentage rate compared to the average for the industry usually indicates an efficient use of Assets.

How to Create a Vertical Company Financial Statement Analysis

This simplifies the process of comparing the financial statement of the company against another or to even do it across the industry. This analysis also gives a better picture of the performance metrics of the company and if it’s improving or on a decline. That is done by looking at the annual or quarterly figures of the company and comparing it over a number of years. It is called vertical analysis because, as the name suggests, it operates up and down the data of one accounting period. It does this by using one line item on the statement as a base against which to evaluate all other items in the same statement. Quality analysis is not done by using vertical analysis of financial statements as there is no consistency in the ratio of the elements. In the above vertical analysis example, we can see that the income decreases from 1st year to 2nd year, and the income increases to 18% in the 3rd year.

Business owners can use company financial analysis both internally and externally. They can use them internally to examine issues such as employee performance, the efficiency of operations and credit policies.

What is Horizontal Analysis?

Riverwater clothing company is a California-based company that produces men’s, women’s and children’s clothing. The retail location has just celebrated its first year in business, and the store manager is using vertical analysis to see what percent of their sales come from children’s clothing. The company sold a total of 19,304 items, of which 1,543 were children’s clothing. The formula allows you to break down individual items on accounting sheets and assign each item a value relative to one another. Vertical analysis formulas always start at 100% of something like revenue or expenditures then methodically list the percentage of each item on the list as it relates to the entirety. For example, you could use the formula to break down how many items were sold over the course of a few months.

Based in San Diego, Calif., Madison Garcia is a writer specializing in business topics. Garcia received her Master of Science in accountancy from San Diego State University. We’re firm believers in the Golden Rule, which is why editorial opinions are ours alone and have not been previously reviewed, approved, or endorsed by included advertisers. Editorial content from The Ascent is separate from The Motley Fool editorial content and is created by a different analyst team.

Balance Sheet

Financial statement analysis is the process of analyzing a company’s financial statements for decision-making purposes. Common-size financial statements often incorporate comparative financial statements that include columns comparing each line item to a previously reported period.

What is vertical analysis example?

In accounting, a vertical analysis is used to show the relative sizes of the different accounts on a financial statement. For example, when a vertical analysis is done on an income statement, it will show the top-line sales number as 100%, and every other account will show as a percentage of the total sales number.

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The income statement and cash flow statement provide you with accounting data over a defined period. But the balance sheet provides you with financial and accounting data at a specific moment. You conduct vertical analysis on a balance sheet to determine trends and identify potential problems.